The gas discharge tube (GDT) absorbs the overvoltage and is controlled by the voltage.
The GDT consists of a spark gap in a sealed glass or ceramic tube containing inert gas. Under normal conditions, the operating voltage does not reach the spark voltage and the GDT maintains its high resistance state. However, when the overvoltage reaches the ignition voltage of the GDT, the high energy generated by the overvoltage causes the fill gas to start the internal discharge. At this point, the GDT becomes short-circuited in a very short space of time, which carries the overload current to earth and protects the equipment. As soon as the overvoltage disappears, the GDT returns to the high isolation state.
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